1. The identification of silver jewelry (1) Overview of my country's jewelry market: At present, my country's gold production ranks fourth in the world, and gold consumption ranks third in the world. The consumption of platinum and diamonds has grown rapidly. The annual growth rate is more than 10%. The turnover of platinum and diamond jewelry in large cities accounts for 50%-70%. (2) Gold (AU) 1. Classification: divided into two categories: foot gold (pure gold) and K gold. The common gold on the market has two types: 99.99%and 99%, of which the former is "four -nine gold" and the latter is "two -nine gold". At present, the highest purity gold is 99.9999%. K gold refers to the melting of metals such as silver, copper, zinc and other metals in gold to increase the toughness of the strength of the gold. 2. Calculation methods of K gold: The gold with the highest purity into 24K, 1K's gold content is 4.166%. Generally, there are 24K, 22K, 20K, 18K, 14K, 12K, 9K. The most common in K gold is 18K and 14K, and the gold content is 75%and 58.33%. 3. The identification of gold jewelry: (1) See color: the higher the purity of the gold jewelry, the deeper the color. (2) Type weight: The proportion of gold is 19.32, which is more important than metal such as silver, copper, lead, zinc, aluminum. It should have a sense of sinking in his hand. (3) Look at the hardness: pure gold is soft, low in hardness, can be used to draw light marks with nails, and teeth can leave tooth marks and easily bend. (4) Listening to the sound: The real gold with a color of more than 99%is thrown to the hard ground, and it will make a tap sound, there is no rhyme or elasticity. (5) Burning with fire: burns the jewelry red but does not melt. After cooling, the color changes, the lower the color, the stronger the color. (6) Seeing the mark: Domestic gold is allicized according to international standards, and pokes, such as "24K" "foot gold" or "foot red", "18K" golden "18K" words Essence 4. Gold, gold -plated and imitation gold jewelry (1) Gold jewelry: The thin gold foil made of made is rolled on the surface of the blank parts. , Silver, nickel, copper -zinc alloy, etc., the thickness of the packets is generally 10-50 microns. (2) Gold -plated jewelry: In the special plating groove, the blank parts are plated with a thin layer of gold foil. The gold -plated jewelry must indicate the thickness of the gold plating layer. For example, P4AU indicates that the thickness of the gold plating layer is 4 microns. Because the combination of gold particles is not strong, it is easy to corrode, and it will soon change color. (3) imitation gold jewelry: also known as Asian gold jewelry, golden yellow appearance, is made of copper, nickel, zinc and other metal mixed melting, does not contain gold ingredients. (3) Silver jewelry: 1. Category: Plus is divided into sterling silver, tattoo silver and color silver. 2. Simple identification: The color is more than 97%, the epidermis is white and delicate, and the luster is soft and pleasing; (4) Platinum (PT) 1. Category: The platinum on the market can be divided into two types: PT900 and PT950, and the platinum content is 90%and 95%, respectively. , Cycles, nickel and other rare metals. PT is a symbol of platinum chemical element. 2. Why is platinum more precious than gold? Because platinum is a rare metal than gold, platinum is only 5%of gold each year. In addition, processing platinum jewelry also requires higher craftsmanship Level. 3. What is the difference between platinum and white K gold? The white K gold is actually a alloy, which is made of gold and other white alloys after melting. Among them, the most common golden purity on the market is 75%; It may fade after a long time. Platinum is a natural white precious metal, and its value is much higher than white K gold. In terms of purity, rarity and durability, white K gold cannot be compared with platinum. The easiest way to distinguish between the two is: the back of the platinum jewelry is generally marked on the back of the "PT900" and "PT950"; while the white K gold jewelry cannot be beaten on the "PT" logo. (5) The logo management regulations of gold and silver jewelry: In March 1999, the National Quality and Technical Supervision Bureau issued the "Regulations on Management of Gold and Silver Jewelry Identity", which requires all gold and silver jewelry to have logos, including imprints and marks and Other signs. The mark includes the name of the material, including gold (silver, platinum). If the weight of a single piece is less than 0.5 grams or it is difficult to mark, the mark content can be exempted. The imprint should be printed on the gold and silver jewelry. Other signs can be one or more, including names, materials names, gold (silver, platinum volume), producer name, address, product standard number, product quality inspection certificate, and sales according to weight. Essence The imported gold and silver jewelry may not marketer the name and address of the producer, but the origin of the product should be marked, and the name and address registered by agents or entryrs or sellers in China in accordance with the law. The place of origin here refers to the final production, processing or assembly of gold and silver jewelry. . The identification and identification of jewelry jewelry (1) Jewelry and jewelry Jewelry refers to the rare, beautiful, precious natural substances such as diamonds, pearls, red sapphires, ivory, etc. Essence Jewelry jewelry refers to various decorations made of various valuable gems grinding, carving, inlaid and stringing. (2) Classification of jewelry and jade 1. Inorganic jewelry is mainly: (1) Natural jewelry: It is mined from the mine. Gems, such as diamonds, sea blue gems, emeralds, etc. (2) Half -gem: It is a jewelry that replaces and simulates precious gemstones with similar substances. Generally refers to low -grade gems with hardness below 7 degrees. (3) Synthetic jewelry: Based on some kind of natural gemstone, it is artificially manufactured by scientific methods with the same nature as natural gems. Such as synthetic ruby, sapphire, emerald, diamond diamond, etc. (4) Gem: It actually refers to the beautiful artificial lead glass, plastic products and other substances that are beautiful in color. compared to. 2. Organic jewelry is made from biological evolution. Such as pearl, coral, amber, coal essence, etc., the main ingredients are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and are combined according to different proportion. (3) The identification of jewelery jewelry 1. Better color: natural jewelry color is natural, artificial synthesis gemstones are often excessively modified and not natural. 2. Calculation: Clearing refers to the transparency and cleanliness of gems. Generally, there are fewer defects in synthetic jewelry and clean inside. 3. Look at the process of processing jewelry. After the natural jewelry is pondering and processing, the surface is relatively smooth, the discount rate is strong, and the edges and corners are stiff; the artificial synthesis gemstones often have thick and rounded lines and corners. 4. Card heavy method: The same defense of the same volume of jewelry. If the same volume of vermiculite and diamonds are weighed at the same time, the severe case is diamond. 5. Lighting recognition: Put the jewelry under the table lamp to check, put down the lampshade so that the light does not shoot directly into the eyes, and then place the jewelry on the edge of the lampshade. The light exposes its internal flaws. (4) Cleaning of jewelry jewelry 1. Materials with higher hardness, such as diamonds, emeralds, red sapphires, etc., you can wash it with water. That is, first immerse the jewelry in the warm water of a small pot of detergent, brush off the dirt on the back with a brush, and then wash it on the water filter paper with warm water, and finally suck the water with a dry cloth. 2. Middle hardness materials, such as emerald, garnet, etc., can only gently wash the stains with a soft bristles, wrap it with water absorption paper or gauze, suck in sewage, and then use alcohol to use alcohol Add water and rub the jewelry in the soft cloth, and let it dry or air dry in the shade. 3. Low hardness amber, coral, turquoise and other strong water absorption jewelry, avoid washing with water, heated will crack them, and it is not advisable to contact alcohol, oil, vinegar, etc. Usually apply velvet cloth to clean stains, pay attention to reduce friction. 4. For pearls that are not abrasion -resistant and weakly resistant to acid -base resistance, you should try to avoid the sun and rain and sweat. After each use, apply a soft cloth or wipe some cold cream first, and then clean it with a soft cloth, so that the effect is better. (5) Introduction to several kinds of jewelry and jade 1. Diamond (1) The general characteristics of diamonds: Diamond is a natural mineral that is a shaft system that crystals in the mantle magma Essence The main ingredients are carbon elements, Mo's stone degree 10, density 3.52g/cm3, refractive index 2.417, and color dispersing rate of 0.044. (2) Diamond color grading: In the specific experimental environment, the sample is determined with the known color -grade ratio. N1 and other levels. (3) Diamond clarity classification: Use 10 times the magnifying glass to observe the size, quantity, distribution, and the degree of influence on diamond glory in the diamond. Large and 10 small. (4) Diamond cutting classification: According to the cutting ratio and modification of each part, it is divided into three levels: good, good, and general. (5) Diamond carat weight: less than 0.2 carats can not be classified. 0.2 carats -1 carat can be graded by naked diamonds or inlaid diamonds. Diamonds greater than 1 carat must be detailed in color, clarity, and cutting in accordance with the naked diamond grading standard. (6) Inlaid diamonds: Inlaid diamonds less than 0.2 carats can be preliminary graded in accordance with the "Mosaic Diamond Quality Grade Rules" standard. According to the clarity and color, it is divided into excellent, good, good, and good. Level. (7) Identifying the 4C standard of diamonds: Carat weight (cact) The big diamonds are rare, small diamonds are brilliant diamond weight is calculated in carats. 1 carat = 100 points = 200 mg = 0.2 grams. Therefore, 0.75 carats are also called 75 points, and 0.02 carats are also called 2 points. In the case of similar conditions, as the diamond weight increases, its value increases geometrically; diamonds with the same weight will be far from the difference in color, clarity, and cutting. In each different size and shape, you can find good quality diamonds. Clarity The crystal clear and beautiful and difficult to find diamond crystals in the mantle of the mantle in the depths of the earth. Geological changes will inevitably contain various debris or flaws. The color, how much, size, and position distribution of these inside contains the effects of different degrees on diamond clarity. The general levels of the clarity level of unspoiled diamonds on the inside of the diamond, surface defects and its influence on the diamond use 10 times large mirror, and its influence procedures on the luster is LC, VVS1, VVS2, VS1, VS2, S11, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1, P1 P2, P3 total 10 levels. The inlaid diamonds are divided into excellent, good, good, and better, generally 5 levels. color (color) The colorless elegance and brilliance diamonds have many natural colors, from precious colorless (white after cut), rare light blue, pink to common micro micro Huang is not waiting. The more transparent, the more white light is the kidney penetration, and it is even more colorful after refraction and color dispersing. The diamond color grading is in the hierarchical environment of a professional laboratory. The technicians will be determined repeatedly with the standard color stones to be ticked up with the standard color stone. The whitening diamonds are set as D -grade (that is, starting with the first letter of Diamond). The color of diamonds is divided into 11 levels, in turn: D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N. The cutting workers This carved light shows The brilliant glory of diamonds is attributed to its unique high refractive index and high -color scattered performance. However, the diamonds without cutting are only flat. Only by accurate calculation, careful design and perfect cutting and grinding, the light is fully reflecting the top surface, can the diamonds be revealed. Diamonds are the hardest substances. There is no destructive, never worn, and eternity once after cutting. The method of judging the advantages and disadvantages of cutting work: pick up the diamonds, stare at the light of the top surface, the exquisite diamonds of the car worker are brilliant and dazzling. The level of the car is divided into: good, good, general. (8) The simple identification method of diamonds The diamond is the king of gems. It is close to oil. It can be used to scratch the surface of the diamond with oil -based stationery. The diamond is left. If the scratches are gathered into a droplet, it is a fake diamond. You can also use water -based stationery pens to scratch the surface of the diamond. The small water droplets on the diamond surface can remain for a long time, and the fake diamonds are dispersed in a short time. You can also put the diamond on your hand. You can't see the palm pattern through natural diamonds, and the drill (such as vermiculite) is fine. Diamonds generally emit silver glory, and the vermiculite hair is blue and blue, and the real diamond is placed on black paper. It is still silver and white, while the vermiculite is as sad as glass. 2. Emerald Emerald is the king of jade, and it is a combination of minerals mainly based on rough jade. Color is its main feature. Emerald's green cannot be blue, but it can only deviate from yellow tone. The highest -level emeralds include emerald, emerald green, apple green and seedlings green. The identification is divided into three categories: A, B, and C goods. A goods are pure natural jadeite, commonly known as "genuine goods". C goods are obvious inappropriate processing, such as dyeing white sorrowful green green, which is a typical "fake". The B is processed in an incomplete legitimate method. For example, using a mechanical or chemical method to remove the flaws, the left potholes are filled with color adding plastic pouring, and then the waver is polished. However, the modified surface will change color and deteriorate due to a long time, and eventually become a secondary product, so this kind of goods are also fakes. The main points of identification of emerald: (1) "Curma" and structure: "Curvy" is the "flies wings" referred to by people in the industry. Star -shaped, linear and flakes. The thick emerald, "green" is easy to see, and those with thinning structures should be used with a magnifying glass. (2) Emerald color is colorful and unevenly distributed. It is accompanied by white, pink, oily green, and bean -green foundation with thick and uneven green or black, and the green base is also divided into thick. (3) Gloss: with glass luster or oil luster. The emerald with good transparent water head is clear and moisturized, and it is no other jade. (4) Smooth: The structure is dense and delicate, the hardness is high, and the surface is smooth after polishing. (5) Cool: The surface of the jadeite is stuck on the face or the lips. (6) Weight: Ilinking with the feeling of falling by hand, generally green jade and Xizhou jade are lighter. 3. Ruby The red gem is red rigida. It is one of the five major gems in the world (diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, golden emeralds), and usually contain some gas or mineral parcels. Its best color is called "pigeon blood red", which is produced in the valley area of Myanmar. (1) The difference between the synthetic ruby: the color of the synthetic ruby is uniform, too gorgeous, the internal defects are small, and the block is often large. Occasionally, the curved growth line can be seen. (2) The difference between red glass: The color of the red glass is uniform, without the second color. The round bubbles and vortex patterns can be seen under the magnifying glass. The surface has melting casting traces, low hardness, and often corrosive traces of face -to -face edges. In addition, the glass density is small and the hands are light. 4. Crystal stones: How to distinguish off work and crystal is the key to identification. The main components of the two are silica. Glass is formed in a short time under artificial conditions. It is often not discharged by air and forms air bubbles inside. Natural crystals often contain gas liquid wraps instead of bubbles. Specific from the following aspects: (1) Different gloss: glass products are white and brighter, and look more beautiful than crystal. (2) Natural crystal is non -homogeneous body, and it turns to 360 degrees under the polarized mirror to show four Mings and four darks. The glass is a homogeneous body, and it turns to 360 degrees under the polarized mirror. (3) Natural crystals are long under ultraviolet fluorescence, and there is no fluorescence in short waves, but the glass has strong fluorescence. (4) Natural crystal touch has a cold feeling, and the glass is relatively warm. Natural crystal is a transparent quartz crystal, which is hexagonal columnar, with high hardness and strong reflective power. Pure crystal is colorless transparent body. Once the impurities are infiltrated, it looks less clean. If artificial crystals are mixed with quartz sand, alumina and other minerals, which are made by fine cutting technology. The all -aluminum crystal is the most fine one in the artificial crystal. Because of this artificial crystal process, the price is more expensive than natural crystals. Due to natural beauty, the market is very large. The reports specializing in the effect of crystal medical treatment stated that crystal necklaces can remove fire and heat, reduce blood pressure, and prevent breast cancer; crystal glasses can be relieved, brain -healthy, wearing crystal accessories for a long time, beauty and regulating human body functions Waiting for magical effects. 5. Pearl is divided into two types of natural beads and beaded. The former is a bead that grows naturally in the mussel body, also called real beads; It is also divided into buns and light beads. Bao Suzhu wraps a layer of fish scales or waxy skin on the outside of the small ball. The appearance is yellow, dull and lustrous. You can use a knife or needle to expose the inside ball. Heguangzhu is caused by improper placement of the pearl nucleus, and the pearl Zhenye only covers part of the nucleus. Two pearls can be wiped with two pearls when identifying. The fake feels very smooth. The real goods have a "astringent" feeling. The advantages and disadvantages of pearl lies in appearance, brightness and color. Youpin must be smooth and shiny, and the silver white with a slightly pink rainbow is best. In addition, the identification of pearls should be carried out under the natural light that is sufficient and not dazzling, and wearing plain clothes to feed the external color of the pearl as much as possible. The natural black pearls formed with their colorful and rare output and are very valuable. They are treasures in pearls. Natural black pearls are not pure black, but dark blue black or bronze tones with slight rainbow -like flashing blacks. The dyed black pearls are pure black and the color is dying. Observe the surface of the pearl with a magnifying glass. The black pearls are often visible to the corrosive traces of corrosion. Is when you do n’t admire, wash the sweat on top of the neutral detergent, drift and dry it with water, and put it in the box to store it. The beads are thin and soft. Stress, don't expose it for a long time in the sun. (6) National Standards for Jewelry and Jade GB/T16552-1996 "Jewelry and Jade Name" GB/T16553-1996 "Jewelry and Jade Identification" GB/T16554-1996 "Diamond Diamond Classification " can it solve your problem?
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